Without the wolves, aspen was simply not reproducing in YNP. With wolves, there is aspen reprod. On my last visit you could see a whole lot of aspen saplings that weren;t there on previous visits.

Without wolves the elk browsed the wilow off the riverbanks. Many of the streambanks, at least where I fish, now have willow growing and will provide shade, more bank stability, and more bugs.

The grizzlies follow and appropriate wolf kills. The ravens follow the wolf packs and are at the kill site within minutes. Wolf kills are available all year, not just during spring melt from winter-kill.

It was fairly easy to see that elk behavior changed, and rather quickly. They are not out in the open all day, and not in big herds.

A side benefit appears that the wolves have disrupted the coyotes, which may be one reason why we saw more pronghorns last time.